I have certainly heard this argument with hearing aids for profound losses. Usually the outcome of the argument is that the benefits of aiding the loss now outweigh the risk of the hearing getting any worse, because the difference between 90dB loss and 100dB loss is not a lot in practical terms, and it is certainly (usually) better to have a hearing aid and take the risk than have no hearing aid and therefore no hearing.
The other rebuttal for this research is usually that NIOSH and such are concerned with continuous noise such as that from machinery. Even fitted with a hearing aid that will output conversation at 90dB, most users will not stand in an environment of noise all day long, they will move from environments of loud noise (where the aid outputs similarly to moderate noise) to moderate noise (output at 90dB for this example) and soft noise (output either below 85dB - conisdered the safe level for any exposure - or is not amplified at all because the wearer will never expect to hear it).
Should it happen to be that the wearer of a powerful hearing aid in fact does tend to be in an environment of noise all day long, that is when there is need for a more considered measurement of the received noise, rather than the ambient noise. Which is obviously trickier. Say I wear an aid with 40dB of gain at 60dB input, and for this purpose we will make all frequencies the same and presume we do not have a “noise” or “speech in noise” program. So if I spend the whole of my day somewhere like a call centre, where everyone is talking around me continuously all day long, then my ambient noise is below NIOSH guidelines because it’s under 85. But my received noise will be 100dB average, sustained. So there does appear to be an area in which those who wear hearing aids may need to take different precautions. In reality, of course, most aids have a noise and a speech in noise system, and will recognise that this environment is not useful to the wearer, and will cut some of the volume off.
I am not saying, incidentally, that I agree or disagree with any of these theories and points, just that I have heard them and heard their counter-arguments and these arguments do indeed exist in the fields of quality research.
I am lucky, I have a mixed loss, so the conductive element can be subtracted from the risk, I come with my own ear protection!