Yes, all the buzz words can confuse…but you are in IT the home of buzz.
Hearing aids are aids. They don’t restore our original hearing. There are 3 levels of aids sold that address in varying degree noise. Noise is a problem as the aids can’t discriminate as well as the original ear working with the brain. You’ll have experienced that with background sounds in movies and elsewhere without aids. Your speech discrimination in such cases suffer. The top of the line aids address noise but they aren’t perfect. All the companies describe this attempt to correct in different ways and do it mostly as marketing hype. An approach to this is described in each companies terms.
Really you need to try aids as what works for you may be different from what I find best. Just understand that regardless of info, all aids attempt to do the same thing and the decision you’ll make is subjective. If you stick with the major manufacturers to start, you’ll evaluate things and decide.
The reason many of us suggest Costco is they handle major brands and you can try all the brands in the store and have a free 90 day trial to make a decision.